MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION
DYE PENETRANT INSPECTION
MPI is a process for detecting surface and shallow subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. The process of magnetization occurs when electric current is passed through the test object. The presence of a surface discontinuity in the material allows the magnetic flux to leak, since air cannot support as much magnetic field per unit volume as metals.
To identify a leak, ferrous particles, either dry or in a wet suspension, are applied to a part. These are attracted to an area of flux leakage and form what is known as an indication.
PT is a widely applied inspection method used to locate surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials (metals, plastics, or ceramics). The penetrant may be applied to all non-ferrous materials and ferrous materials, although for ferrous components magnetic-particle inspection is often used instead for its subsurface detection capability. LPI is used to detect casting, forging and welding surface defects such as hairline cracks, surface porosity, leaks in new products, and fatigue cracks on in-service components.
Ultrasonic testing techniques are based on the propagation of ultrasonic waves in the object or material tested. In most common UT applications, very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz, and occasionally up to 50 MHz, are transmitted into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. A common example is ultrasonic thickness measurement, which tests the thickness of the test object, for example, to monitor pipework corrosion.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen. Industrial Radiography can be performed utilizing either X-rays or gamma rays. Both are forms of electromagnetic radiation. The difference between various forms of electromagnetic energy is related to the wavelength. X and gamma rays have the shortest wavelength and this property leads to the ability to penetrate, travel through, and exit various materials such as carbon steel and other metals.
FLUORESCENT PENETRANT INSPECTION
FPI is a type of dye penetrant inspection in which a fluorescent dye is applied to the surface of a non-porous material in order to detect defects that may compromise the integrity or quality of the part in question.
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localised plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion. Some materials (e.g. metals) are harder than others (e.g. plastics). Macroscopic hardness is generally characterized by strong intermolecular bonds, but the behavior of solid materials under force is complex; therefore, there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and rebound hardness.
Measures the wall thickness of materials such as steel, plastic and more using ultrasonic technology. Ideal for measuring the effects of corrosion or erosion on tanks, pipes or any structure where access is limited to one side. This process can measure the metal thickness of a painted structure without having to remove the coating.